Writing

Writing

AIM

Our aim is to ensure  that every child leaves Rook’s Nest Academy able to communicate their thoughts and ideas effectively in writing. Pupils should be able to write for a range of purposes and audiences, choosing appropriate style, vocabulary and grammatical structures. Children should enjoy the process of writing in a creative and imaginative way responding to a range of stimulating and challenging writing opportunities linked to the wider curriculum as they progress through Rook’s Nest..

WRITING EFFECTIVELY

Children are taught to write to a high standard in a variety of styles and forms showing an awareness of audience and purpose. Teachers model writing for pupils to encourage understanding and to set clear expectations.

In daily literacy lessons, children have the opportunity to rehearse writing orally and to write daily, using a range of sentence and text level skills. Wherever possible, writing is linked to the wider curriculum based on a ‘hook’ which provides clear purpose and audience.

Each pupil is asked to produce a longer piece of writing each week, using grammar and punctuation correctly at the appropriate level in order to achieve high standards in the English language.

A wide vocabulary is seen as the basis of good writing. Children are taught a range of new words each half term, based on a challenging age-appropriate text and linked to their topics. They are then given the opportunity to practise using these words in different spoken and written contexts.

Children are taught daily to understand and use a phonics based system in order to read and spell accurately. They are taught the High Frequency Words specified in the National Curriculum and spelling strategies are taught using Letters and Sounds together with the Support for Spelling document.

Pupils write using fluent, legible joined handwriting and take pride in the presentation of all of their work. In EYFS and Year 1, children begin writing with a pre-cursive style with lead ins, lead outs, joining is taught when ready from Year 2.

 Rook’s Nest Academy Writing Curriculum Skills Progression

Skill Year 1 Year 2 Years 3 and 4 Years 5 and 6
Composition Pupils should be taught to

§ write sentences by saying out loud what they are going to write about and  composing a sentence orally before writing it;

§ sequence sentences to form short narratives;

§ re-read what they have written to check that it makes sense;

§ discuss what they have written with the teacher or other pupils;

§ read aloud their writing clearly enough to be heard by their peers and the teacher.

Pupils should be taught to

§ develop positive attitudes towards and stamina for writing by writing narratives about personal experiences and those of others (real and fictional); writing about real events; writing poetry and writing for different purposes;

§ consider what they are going to write before beginning by planning or saying out loud what they are going to write about; writing down ideas and/or key words, including new vocabulary and encapsulating what they want to say, sentence by sentence;

§ make simple additions, revisions and corrections to their own writing by evaluating their writing with the teacher and other pupils; re-reading to check that their writing makes sense and that verbs to indicate time are used correctly and consistently, including verbs in the continuous form and proof-reading to check for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation (for example, ends of sentences punctuated correctly);

§ read aloud what they have written with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear.

Pupils should be taught to

§ plan their writing by discussing writing similar to that which they are planning to write in order to understand and learn from its structure, vocabulary and grammar and discussing and recording ideas;

§ draft and write by composing and rehearsing sentences orally (including dialogue), progressively building a varied and rich vocabulary and an increasing range of sentence structure and  organising paragraphs around a theme;

§ in narratives, creating settings, characters and plot;

§ in non-narrative material, using simple organisational devices (for example, headings and sub-headings);

§ evaluate and edit by  assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing and suggesting improvements;

§ proposing changes to grammar and vocabulary to improve consistency, including the accurate use of pronouns in sentences;

§ proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors;

§ read aloud their own writing, to a group or the whole class, using appropriate intonation and controlling the tone and volume so that the meaning is clear.

Pupils should be taught to

§ plan their writing by identifying the audience for and purpose of the writing, selecting the appropriate form and using other similar writing as models for their own and noting and developing initial ideas, drawing on reading and research where necessary;

§ in writing narratives, consider how authors have developed characters and settings in what pupils have read, listened to or seen performed;

§ draft and write by selecting appropriate grammar and vocabulary, understanding how such choices can change and enhance meaning;

§ in narratives, describe settings, characters and atmosphere and integrate dialogue to convey character and advance the action;

§ précis longer passages;

§ use a wide range of devices to build cohesion within and across paragraphs;

§ use further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader (for example, headings, bullet points, underlining);

§ evaluate and edit by assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing;  proposing changes to vocabulary, grammar and punctuation to enhance effects and clarify meaning;  ensuring the consistent and correct use of tense throughout a piece of writing; ensuring correct subject and verb agreement when using singular and plural, distinguishing between the language of speech and writing and choosing the appropriate register;

§ proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors.

Skill Year 1 Year 2 Years 3 and 4 Years 5 and 6
Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation Pupils should be taught to

§ leave spaces between words;

§ join words and join clauses using and;

§ begin to punctuate sentences using a capital letter and a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark;

§ use a capital letter for names of people, places, the days of the week, and the personal pronoun ‘I’;

§ use the grammatical terminology described above when discussing their writing.

Pupils should be taught to

§ use both familiar and new punctuation  correctly including full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas for lists and apostrophes for contracted forms and the possessive (singular);

§ use sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation, command;

§ use expanded noun phrases to describe and specify (for example, the blue butterfly);

§ use the present and past tenses correctly and consistently including the progressive form;

§ subordination (using when, if, that, or because) and co-ordination (using or, and, or but);

§ use some features of written Standard English;

§ use and understand the grammatical terminology described above when discussing their writing.

 

Pupils should be taught to

§ extend the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, including when, if, because, although;

§ use the present perfect form of verbs in contrast to the past tense;

§ choose nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion and to avoid repetition;

§ use conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause;

§ use fronted adverbials;

§ use commas after fronted adverbials;

§ indicate possession by using the possessive apostrophe with plural nouns;

§ use and punctuate direct speech

§ use and understand the grammatical terminology described above accurately and appropriately when discussing their writing and reading.

Pupils should be taught to

§ recognise vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing, including subjunctive forms; § use passive verbs to affect the presentation of information in a sentence;

§ use the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause;

§ use expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely;

§ use modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility;

§ use relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that or with an implied (i.e. omitted) relative pronoun;

§ use commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing;

§ use hyphens to avoid ambiguity;

§ use brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis;

§ use semi-colons, colons or dashes to mark boundaries between independent clauses;

§ use a colon to introduce a list;

§ punctuate bullet points consistently;

§ use and understand the grammatical terminology described above accurately and appropriately when discussing their writing and reading.

Skill Year 1 Year 2 Years 3 and 4 Years 5 and 6
Spelling

(see National Curriculum for English appendix 1 attached)

Spell

§ words containing each of the 40+ phonemes already taught;

§  common exception words;

§ the days of the week.

Name the letters of the alphabet in order.

Use letter names to distinguish between alternative spellings of the same sound.

Add prefixes and suffixes:

§ use the spelling rule for adding –s or –es as the plural marker for nouns and the third person singular marker for verbs;

§ using the prefix un– ;

§ use –ing, –ed, –er and –est where no change is needed in the spelling of root words (for example, helping, helped, helper, eating, quicker, quickest).

Apply simple spelling rules and guidance, as listed in English Appendix 1.

Write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words using the GPCs and common exception words taught so far.

Spell by

§ segmenting spoken words into phonemes and representing these by graphemes;

§ spelling many correctly; learning new ways of spelling phonemes for which one or more spellings are already known and learn some words with each spelling, including a few common homophones;

§ learning to spell common exception words;

§ learning to spell more words with contracted forms;

§ learning the singular possessive apostrophe (for example, the girl’s book);

§ distinguishing between homophones and near-homophones.

Add suffixes to spell longer words, including –ment, –ness, –ful, –less, –ly

Apply spelling rules and guidance, as listed in English Appendix 1

Write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words using the GPCs, common exception words and punctuation taught so far.

Pupils should be taught to

§ use further prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them (English Appendix 1)

§ spell further homophones

§ spell words that are often misspelt (English Appendix 1)

§ place the possessive apostrophe accurately in words with regular plurals (for example, girls’, boys’) and in words with irregular plurals (for example, children’s);

§ use the first two or three letters of a word to check its spelling in a dictionary

Write from memory simple sentences, dictated by the teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far.

Pupils should be taught to

§ use further prefixes and suffixes and understand the guidance for adding them

§ spell some words with ‘silent’ letters (for example, knight, psalm, solemn);

§ continue to distinguish between homophones and other words which are often confused;

§ use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and understand that the spelling of some words needs to be learnt specifically, as listed in English Appendix 1;

§ use dictionaries to check the spelling and meaning of words;

§ use the first three or four letters of a word to check spelling, meaning or both of these in a dictionary;

§ use a thesaurus.

Skill Year 1 Year 2 Years 3 and 4 Years 5 and 6
Handwriting Pupils should be taught to

§ sit correctly at a table, holding a pencil comfortably and correctly;

§ begin to form lower-case letters in the correct direction, starting and finishing in the right place;

§ form capital letters;

§ form digits 0-9;

§ understand which letters belong to which handwriting ‘families’ (i.e. letters that are formed in similar ways) and to practise these.

Pupils should be taught to

§ form lower-case letters of the correct size relative to one another;

§ start using some of the diagonal and horizontal strokes needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left unjoined;

§ write capital letters and digits of the correct size, orientation and relationship to one another and to lower case letters;

§ use spacing between words that reflects the size of the letters.

Pupils should be taught to

§ use the diagonal and horizontal strokes that are needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left unjoined;

§ increase the legibility, consistency and quality of their handwriting (for example, by ensuring that the down strokes of letters are parallel and equidistant; that lines of writing are spaced sufficiently so that the ascenders and descenders of letters do not touch).

Pupils should be taught to

§ write legibly, fluently and with increasing speed by choosing which shape of a letter to use when given choices and deciding whether or not to join specific letters;

§ choose the writing implement that is best suited for a task.

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